Reverse osmosis (RO) is a filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective," this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.

APEC Water Systems Extends Reverse Osmosis Water Filter Donation Program for 2011 to Benefit Charity

APEC Water Systems is excited to announce that they will continue providing FREE water filtration systems to people who are in need of pure drinking water for the first half of 2011. From now until the end of June, disadvantaged individuals and families who are experiencing both financial and medical hardships can apply at the website for a chance to receive a free reverse osmosis water purification system.

According to recent news reports, tap water from 31 of 35 U.S. cities have tested positive for hexavalent chromium, or chromium-6, based on laboratory tests. Hexavalent chromium is a carcinogen and unfortunately, it is just one of the many contaminants that are found in drinking water which can cause cancer and damage people's health. For individuals who are already sick and undergoing medical treatment, even low levels of toxins in their water can have a negative effect on their recovery. Unfortunately, many people do not have the financial means to purchase a quality reverse osmosis system to filter out contaminants like chromium, arsenic and fluoride which are not removed by basic faucet water filters.

APEC's FreeDrinkingWater program will donate several new water filtration systems every month to qualified applicants for the first half of 2011. Besides reverse osmosis, other systems that are available include whole house carbon filters, countertop filters, iron removal systems, and UV water purifiers. "We are excited to continue to offer this program and would like to thank the past applicants who have made it truly meaningful and worthwhile." said Ed Shih, marketing manager at APEC. "We believe that purified drinking water is fundamental to peoples' health, and would like to sincerely and humbly welcome all applicants who are interested to apply today."

The FreeDrinkingWater program is open to all residences within the 48 contiguous states. Full details, eligibility requirements and application forms are available to the public through the website at

For the original version on PRWeb visit:

Guide to Water Purification (water filter)

by Rick Curtis

first edition published by Random House March, 1998

Water Purification

Dipping your head into a cold mountain stream and taking a long refreshing drink is an experience that has basically vanished from the wilderness areas of America. With the increased use of the wilderness there has also been an increase in the amount of bacteriological contamination of backcountry water supplies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports that 90 percent of the world’s water is contaminated in some way. There are a variety of microscopic organisms that can contaminate water supplies and cause potentially serious, even fatal, illnesses among wilderness travelers. The major danger in the backcountry from these infections is fluid loss due to diarrhea and vomiting, which can lead to hypovolemic shock and possibly death (see Diarrhea or Vomiting, page 315; Fluid Electrolyte Replacement, page 286; Shock, page 238).

In order to drink the water, you should be prepared to treat it. There are numerous methods of water purification, described below in order of effectiveness. Remember, however, that infections can also be spread through poor personal hygiene, something that purifying your water won’t prevent.

Biologically Contaminated vs. Toxic Water

Biologically contaminated water is water that contains microorganisms such as Giardia (a common microorganism that, if not killed, leads to intestinal disorders), bacteria, or viruses that can lead to infections (see Gastrointestinal Infections, page 316). Toxic water sources contain chemical contamination from pesticide runoffs, mine tailings, and so on. Boiling, filtering, or chemically treating water can remove or kill microorganisms, but it will not remove chemical toxins. This is also the case when using a solar still (see page 223).


Boiling is the most certain way of killing all microorganisms. According to the Wilderness Medical Society, water temperatures above 160° F (70° C) kill all pathogens within 30 minutes and above 185° F (85° C) within a few minutes. So in the time it takes for the water to reach the boiling point (212° F or 100° C) from 160° F (70° C), all pathogens will be killed, even at high altitude. To be extra safe, let the water boil rapidly for one minute, especially at higher altitudes since water boils at a lower temperature (see page 68.)

Chemical Purification

There are two types of chemical treatment: those using iodine and those using chlorine. There are a variety of products on the market, so follow the directions on the bottle. Be advised that many of the tablets have an expiration date and become ineffective after that point. Also, once the bottle has been opened, the tablets must be used within a certain period. When in doubt, buy a new bottle. Remember that chemical purification methods may only be partially effective, depending on the water temperature.

General Chemical Treatment Procedures
  • The effectiveness of all chemical treatment of water is related to the temperature, pH level, and clarity of the water. Cloudy water often requires higher concentrations of chemical to disinfect.
  • If the water is cloudy or filled with large particles, strain it, using a cloth, before treatment. Large particles, if swallowed, may be purified only "on the outside."
  • Add the chemical to the water and swish it around to aid in dissolving. Splash some of the water with the chemical onto the lid and the threads of the water bottle so that all water areas are treated.
  • The water should sit for at least 30 minutes after adding the chemical to allow purification to occur. If using tablets, let the water sit for 30 minutes after the tablet has dissolved.
  • The colder the water, the less effective the chemical is as a purifying agent. Research has shown that at 50° F (10° C), only 90 percent of Giardia cysts were inactivated after 30 minutes of exposure. If the water temperature is below 40° F (4° C), double the treatment time before drinking. It is best if water is at least 60° F (16° C) before treating. You can place the water in the sun to warm it before treating.
  • Chemically treated water can be made to taste better by pouring it back and forth between containers, after it has been adequately treated. Other methods include adding a pinch of salt per quart or adding flavorings (e.g., lemonade mix, etc.) after the chemical treatment period.
Iodine Treatment

Iodine is light sensitive and must always be stored in a dark bottle. It works best if the water is over 68° F (21° C). Iodine has been shown to be more effect than chlorine-based treatments in inactivating Giardia cysts. Be aware that some people are allergic to iodine and cannot use it as a form of water purification. Persons with thyroid problems or on lithum, women over fifty, and pregnant women should consult their physician prior to using iodine for purification. Also, some people who are allergic to shellfish are also allergic to iodine. If someone cannot use iodine, use either a chlorine-based product or a non-iodine-based filter, such as the PUR Hiker Microfilter, MSR WaterWorks, or the Katadyn Water Filter.

Generally, the procedure is as follows:

  • Liquid 2% Tincture of Iodine Add 5 drops per quart when the water is clear. Add 10 drops per quart when the water is cloudy.
  • Polar Pure Iodine Crystals Fill the Polar Pure bottle with water and shake. The solution will be ready for use in one hour. Add the number of capfuls (per quart of water treated) listed on the bottle, based on the temperature of the iodine solution. The particle trap prevents crystals from getting into the water being treated. It is important to note that you are using the iodine solution to treat the water, not the iodine crystals. The concentration of iodine in a crystal is poisonous and can burn tissue or eyes. Let the treated water stand for 30 minutes before drinking. In order to destroy Giardia cysts, the drinking water must be at least 68° F (20° C). The water can be warmed in the sun before treating or hot water can be added. Refill the treatment bottle after use so that the solution will be ready one hour later. Crystals in the bottle make enough solution to treat about 2,000 quarts. Discard the bottle when empty.
  • Potable Aqua This is an iodine tablet product. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use.
Chlorine Treatment

Chlorine can be used for persons with iodine allergies or restrictions. Remember that water temperature, sediment level, and contact time are all elements in killing microorganisms in the water. Halazone is an example of a chlorine tablet product. To use, follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

Tricks of the Trail

  • Backups Always have at least one backup method for water purification in case one fails. This can be any combination of methods. I’m the cautious type, so I always have two backup methods: water filter and 2% tincture of iodine or Polar Pure iodine crystals. And I can always boil the water. If boiling is your backup method, make sure you have enough fuel.
  • Fix the Taste Adding vitamin C (about 50 milligrams) to iodized water completely eliminates any taste or color of iodine. You must wait until the iodine has purified the water before adding the vitamin C. The vitamin C in drink mixes like Tang™ has the same effect.<


There are a number of devices on the market that filter out microorganisms. A water filter pumps water through a microscopic filter that is rated for a certain-size organism. The standard size rating is the micron (the period at the end of this sentence is about 600 microns). Depending on the micron rating of the filter, smaller organisms (like viruses) can pass through. Be cautious when selecting a filter. You should know what potential organisms you need to treat for. You don’t want to go to an area where a virus like hepatitis A is present in the water (a problem in some developing countries) with a filter that will handle only a larger organism like Giardia.

Common microorganisms and the filter size needed:

General Size
Filter Type
Particle Size Rating

Giardia, Cryptosporidium
5 microns or larger
Water filter
1.0–4.0 microns

Cholera, E. coli, Salmonella
0.2–0.5 microns
0.2–1.0 microns

Hepatitis A, rotavirus, Norwalk virus
0.004 microns
Water purifier
to 0.004 microns

There are two basic types of filters (descriptions of several popular models begin on the facing page).

  • Membrane Filters use thin sheets with precisely sized pores that prevent objects larger than the pore size from passing through. Pro: Relatively easy to clean. Con: Clog more quickly than depth filters. Example: PUR-Hiker.
  • Depth Filters use thick porous materials such as carbon or ceramic to trap particles as water flows through the material. Pro: Can be partially cleaned by backwashing. Activated carbon filters also remove a range of organic chemicals and heavy metals. Con: Rough treatment can crack the filter, rendering it useless. Examples: MSR WaterWorks II, Katadyn.

Note: There is a difference between a water filter and a water purifier. Filters do not filter out viruses, but there are water purifiers, like the PUR Scout, that pass the water through both a filter and an iodine compound that kills any smaller organisms that have passed through the filter. These purifiers kill all microorganisms down to 0.004 microns; however, the filter should not be used by people who are allergic to iodine.

Common Practices for Using a Water Filter
  • Filter the cleanest water you can find. Dirty water or water with large suspended particles will clog your filter more quickly.
  • Prefilter the water either through a prefilter on the pump or strain it through a bandanna.
  • If you must filter dirty water, let it stand overnight for particles to settle out.
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